Pile-woven or knotted rugs are created by knots. Most handmade rugs with the exception of kelims are woven by tying knots on the warp strands. There are different methods by which knots are created. The two predominant types of knots are Symmetrical (Turkish or Ghiordes) and Asymmetrical (Persian or Senneh). There are some other kinds of knots as well such as Jufti and Tibetan. The Turkish knot is sturdier than the Persian knot, but produces a less fine weave. The Turkish knot can be found in almost all village or nomad carpets in Persia. The Persian knot with very few exceptions is used only in carpets woven in the larger cities of Persia.
Symmetrical (Turkish or Ghiorde) Knot
The symmetrical knot is used in Turkey, the Caucasus and Iran by Turkish and Kurdish tribes. It is also used in some European rugs. To form this knot, yarn is passed over two neighboring warp strands. Each end of the yarn is then wrapped behind one warp and brought back to the surface in the middle of the two warps.
Asymmetrical (Persian or Senneh) Knot
The asymmetrical knot is used in Iran, India, Turkey, Egypt and China. To form this knot, yarn is wrapped around one warp strand and then passed under the neighboring warp strand and brought back to the surface. With this type of knot a finer weave can be created.
The jufti knot can be seen in rugs of Khorasan, Iran. This knot can be either symmetrical or asymmetrical. The knot is usually tied over four warps making the weaving process faster.