Knot Styles

Knot Styles

Pile-woven or knotted rugs are created by knots. Most handmade rugs with the exception of kelims are woven by tying knots on the warp strands. There are different methods by which knots are created. The two predominant types of knots are Symmetrical (Turkish or Ghiordes) and Asymmetrical (Persian or Senneh). There are some other kinds of knots as well such as Jufti and Tibetan. The Turkish knot is sturdier than the Persian knot, but produces a less fine weave. The Turkish knot can be found in almost all village or nomad carpets in Persia. The Persian knot with very few exceptions is used only in carpets woven in the larger cities of Persia.


Symmetrical (Turkish or Ghiorde) Knot

The symmetrical knot is used in Turkey, the Caucasus and Iran by Turkish and Kurdish tribes. It is also used in some European rugs. To form this knot, yarn is passed over two neighboring warp strands. Each end of the yarn is then wrapped behind one warp and brought back to the surface in the middle of the two warps.


Asymmetrical (Persian or Senneh) Knot

The asymmetrical knot is used in Iran, India, Turkey, Egypt and China. To form this knot, yarn is wrapped around one warp strand and then passed under the neighboring warp strand and brought back to the surface. With this type of knot a finer weave can be created.


Jufti Knot

The jufti knot can be seen in rugs of Khorasan, Iran. This knot can be either symmetrical or asymmetrical. The knot is usually tied over four warps making the weaving process faster.



Tibetan Knot

In Tibet, a distinctive rug-weaving technique is used. A temporary rod which establishes the length of pile is put in front of the warp. A continuous yarn is looped around two warps and then once around the rod. When a row of loops is finished, then the loops are cut to construct the knots.


Knot Density

Knot density refers to the number of knots per square inch in a handmade rug. It is measured by counting the number of knots per linear per inch along the warp and weft (you can see it in the back of the rug) and then multiply the numbers. Knot density is a factor in the value of rug in a fine rug. However in Nomadic and some village rugs, the density is not considered as a factor.


Zar, Gereh and Radj

In the Old Iranian measurement system one Zar was equal to 104 Centimeter in length and it was divided by 16 segments of 6.5 Centimeters called Gereh. And a Radj is a knot. Today in Iran’s bazaar the density of a rug was measured by counting the number of knots in one Gereh (the knots in 6.5 Cm). For example, a rug with 65 Radj means a rug with 65 knots in 6.5 centimeters and brings it to almost 25 knots in one inch (1 inch is equal to 2.53 Cm or 25.3 Millimeter). That actually means that this particular rug had about 625 (25 x 25) knots per square inch.